Tinctures are made with alcohol, (yes even a glycerine tincture has alcohol, glycerine is a fatty alcohol, that may help the palatability of some super bitter or intensely flavored tinctures, however you dramatically lose shelf life when you make a glycerine extract.) Glycerine tinctures only last about 1 maybe 2 years max. With proper storage tinctures made with alcohol can maintain medicinal value indefinitely. I primarily work with alcohols up to 100 proof. Rarely do I see the need for the use of alcohol stronger than this. Many choose to make tinctures with 190 proof alcohol. Not only can this damage your tissues (mostly if taking directly under your tongue), it can also be damaging to the herb while it is extracting. The only time I may ever use this high of proof alcohol is if I am making a tincture with resins, or if I am extracting for perfumery.
Oxymels are really just an extraction made with vinegar. Traditional Fire Cider is one such remedy. A 'spirited oxymel' is made with vinegar and alcohol. This way you are extracting both the water soluble and the alcohol soluble properties.
Elixirs are extractions using honey and alcohol.
Syrups usually involve making a decoction then adding in honey or sugar to sweeten and add shelf stability. Spirited Syrups have have tinctures added in.